The Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) delivery method has become increasingly popular in the tech industry as companies seek efficient and cost-effective ways to develop and operate their projects or services. This outsourcing model involves partnering with a service provider who takes on the responsibility of building and operating the project/service, eventually transferring ownership and control to the tech company.

In this article, we explore the key aspects of the BOT delivery method in tech companies. We discuss how BOT works, its benefits, potential risks and challenges, intellectual property ownership, project scope modifications, and what happens after the transfer phase.

Understanding the BOT delivery method is crucial for tech companies seeking to optimize resources, access specialized expertise, accelerate project deployment, and maintain long-term ownership. By exploring the frequently asked questions surrounding the BOT delivery method, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview and guide for tech companies considering this outsourcing approach.

Originally, BOT agreements were common in the construction industry. Let’s start with this sector to break the basics.

How do BOT contracts work?

A BOT agreement is a contractual arrangement where an organization engages a service provider to establish, optimize, and manage tech or business process service operations with the eventual goal of transferring it to the organization as its own captive center. BOT combines aspects of both building an in-house operation and outsourcing through a service provider.

How do BOT contracts work?

This model comprises three clear phases:

  1. Build: In this stage, a private company undertakes the construction of a public infrastructure project on behalf of the government.

  2. Operate: Once completed, the private company assumes responsibility for operating and managing the facility for an agreed-upon period. During this time, the company aims to recover its investment and generate profits.

  3. Transfer: After the specified concessionary period, the ownership of the infrastructure project is transferred back to the public entity.

Typically, in such a contract, there are several legal and financial aspects:

  • Ownership rights
    One of the most important things is to specify the ownership rights of the facility or operation during different stages of the agreement. Initially, the service provider usually owns the facility, but there should be provisions outlining the transfer of ownership to the organization at the end of the contract or upon fulfilling specific conditions.
  • Duration
    The duration of the BOT agreement should be defined. It includes the time required for building and optimizing the operation, as well as the duration of the operation under the service provider. The duration is frequently set to allow the service provider to recover its investments and generate profits before transferring ownership.
  • Termination clauses
    Outline the circumstances and procedures for terminating the agreement. It includes events such as non-performance, breach of contract, bankruptcy, or force majeure. Termination clauses should also specify the rights and obligations of both parties in case of termination, such as any penalties, compensation, or dispute resolution mechanisms.
  • Financial considerations
    The contract needs to detail the financial aspects, including the payment structure and mechanisms. This may involve upfront payments, periodic payments, or revenue-sharing models. The contract should clearly outline how costs, profits, and risks are allocated between the organization and the service provider during each agreement stage.
  • Intellectual property (IP) considerations
    It clearly defines who owns the IP created during the project and how it will be transferred or licensed to the organization. Confidentiality provisions may also be included to protect sensitive information shared between the parties.

Clear delineation of roles and responsibilities at each stage of the BOT agreement helps establish a collaborative and well-coordinated relationship between the client and service provider, ensuring successful project execution and a smooth transition of ownership.

Let’s talk about roles and responsibilities at each stage:

Build stage Specifies the requirements and objectives for the facility or operation to be built. They provide the necessary information and resources to the service provider for design and construction purposes. The client may also review and approve the plans, designs, and progress during this stage.
Responsible for designing, constructing, and setting up the facility or operation according to the client's requirements. They manage the entire build process, including procurement, hiring subcontractors, obtaining permits, and ensuring compliance with applicable regulations. May also provide regular updates and reports to the client on the progress of the build stage.
Operate stage Assumes the role of overseeing the operation and ensuring that the service provider meets the agreed-upon performance standards. The client may define key performance indicators (KPIs) and service level agreements (SLAs) to monitor the service provider's performance. They also review reports and organize regular meetings to assess the operation's performance and address any issues or concerns. Handles day-to-day operations, staffing, maintenance, and ongoing optimization. The service provider ensures that the operation meets the agreed-upon performance standards and delivers the desired outcomes. They provide regular performance reports to the client, address any operational challenges, and implement necessary improvements.
Transfer stage Prepares to take over ownership and operation of the facility or operation. They actively participate in the transition process by receiving the necessary training, documentation, and knowledge transfer from the service provider. The client ensures they have the capacity and resources to assume full control and responsibility for the operation once the transfer is complete. Facilitate a smooth transition of ownership and operation to the client. They provide the necessary support, training, and documentation to ensure seamless knowledge transfer and operational control. The service provider assists in transferring assets, operational procedures, and any relevant intellectual property. They may also offer post-transfer support and assistance to address any transitional challenges.

Are there any examples that BOT has been successfully implemented in various industries and projects worldwide? Yes, there are plenty. We share the most successful and popular cases.

BOT model examples

The Bangkok Mass Transit System Public (BTS), an elevated train system in Bangkok, is a notable example of a BOT project. The project was executed through a 30-year BOT concession agreement between the concessionaire and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, the city's government.

The Indian Railway system has adopted this approach to modernizing several major city railway stations under the BOT model. Private companies or consortia are awarded concessions to develop and operate specific railway stations for a defined period. During this concession period, the private entities are responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of the station infrastructure, as well as providing various passenger amenities and commercial services.

The model fosters partnerships between the public and private sectors, enabling governments to leverage private sector expertise and investment while ensuring long-term public benefits.

Now that we've broken this model down in the broadest sense, it's time for the most interesting part—BOT and the tech industry.

BOT model in software outsourcing

In the context of tech outsourcing, a provider offering a BOT model takes on a comprehensive set of responsibilities such as developer recruitment, legal aspects, payroll and accounting, and operational procedures. It should be noted that the research and development (R&D) office may eventually transition to the client's premises.

Outsourcing is widely recognized as an excellent solution for businesses aiming to reduce costs and improve efficiency. Vendors provide high-quality services through various engagement models, including BOT, to achieve set objectives.

Furthermore, adopting the BOT model in tech allows companies to gain a competitive advantage. They can leverage the market-leading expertise of the third-party service provider to deliver complex software solutions and acquire exceptional project delivery capabilities. This strategic approach enables businesses to enhance their overall competitiveness in the market.

BOT model

SWOT analysis for the BOT model


  • Reduced upfront investment. The BOT model allows the client to benefit from the service provider's investment in building and operating the project/service, minimizing the client's initial capital outlay.
  • Expertise and efficiency. Clients can leverage the contractor's expertise and experience in the development and performance of similar projects/services, leading to improved efficiency and quality.
  • Risk sharing. The tech company assumes a significant portion of the project/service risks during the build and operate phases, providing a level of risk mitigation for the client.
  • Flexibility. The BOT model offers flexibility in scaling processes and adjusting resources according to changing business needs, enabling faster adaptation to market dynamics.
  • Knowledge transfer. The transfer phase ensures the client gains valuable knowledge and skills from the contractor’s team, enabling independent execution and control after the transfer.


  • Loss of control during the operate phase. Clients may experience a reduced level of control and decision-making authority during the operating phase as the service provider assumes day-to-day processes.
  • Dependency on the service provider. The success of the BOT model relies on the capabilities, reliability, and performance of the service provider. If it fails to meet expectations, this can negatively impact the client's tasks and goals.
  • Transition challenges. The transfer phase may present challenges related to knowledge transfer, personnel transition, and smooth continuity of processes without disruption.


  • Market entry and expansion. The BOT model provides an opportunity for clients to enter new markets or expand their functions without significant upfront investment or in-depth market knowledge.
  • Innovation and technology adoption. Clients can benefit from the expertise in emerging technologies and innovation, gaining a competitive advantage in the market.
  • Strategic partnerships. The BOT model encourages collaboration and long-term partnerships between clients and service providers, enabling both parties to share risks and rewards.


  • Contractual risks. Legal and contractual complexities may arise during the negotiation and execution of the BOT agreement, potentially leading to disputes or delays.
  • Changing market dynamics. External factors such as regulatory changes, economic fluctuations, or shifts in customer preferences can impact the success and viability of the BOT project/service.
  • Competitor actions. Competitors may adopt similar BOT models or offer alternative outsourcing solutions, intensifying competition and potentially affecting market share.

The inherent characteristics of the BOT model, such as flexibility, collaboration, and adaptability, align well with agile development principles, making it an ideal choice for software development endeavors. Also, it makes BOT well-suited to support Agile development methodologies and encourage innovation in software outsourcing projects.

Agile methodology and BOT model

We at Mad Devs have used Agile methodologies in our work for a long time, and we know its benefits. To learn more about how we exactly work, read our related article.

The BOT model can effectively support Agile development methodologies and foster innovation in tech projects. Here's how the model facilitates agility and innovation:

  • Flexibility in resource allocation
    Under the BOT model, the outsourcing provider is fully responsible for recruiting and managing the development team. This allows for rapid scaling of resources, enabling the team to adjust quickly to changing project requirements and priorities. As Agile development encourages flexibility in resource allocation based on the project's evolving needs, the BOT model complements this approach seamlessly.
  • Iterative development and continuous delivery
    Agile methodologies emphasize iterative development and frequent delivery of working software. The collaborative nature of the BOT model allows both sides of the contract to work closely throughout the project. Regular feedback and communication enable the team to incorporate changes and deliver incremental updates, fostering continuous delivery and client involvement.
  • Innovation and knowledge transfer
    The service company gains in-depth knowledge of the project's objectives, technology stack, and business context. This knowledge exchange and immersion in the client's environment foster innovation, as the outsourcing provider can propose and implement novel solutions.
  • Adapting to market dynamics
    The BOT model provides the flexibility to adapt to market dynamics by enabling the client to access the outsourcing provider's capabilities and expertise promptly. This agility helps the client stay ahead of the competition and respond effectively to market changes.
  • Technology advancements
    BOT allows the third-party service company to invest in continuous training and skill development for their teams, ensuring the client benefits from the latest tools and technologies throughout the project lifecycle.
  • Collaborative culture
    Successful Agile development relies heavily on collaboration, open communication, and mutual trust between the client and the development team. The collaborative nature of the BOT model fosters this culture, as both parties work as partners with a shared vision for project success.

How can the BOT model be applied to software product development?

It can be applied as a strategic approach to proficiently and cost-effectively bring a software product to market.

During this phase, the provider assembles a skilled development team, designs and develops the product, and ensures its quality and functionality.

They invest their resources in the development process, and the client may have limited involvement, primarily in providing the initial product concept and requirements.
This stage concerns software updates, bug fixes, customer support, and other day-to-day operational tasks. The provider operates the product as a standalone service, either in the cloud or on-premises, depending on the product's nature and deployment model.

During this phase, the outsourcing company may generate revenue through product sales, subscriptions, or licensing fees.
At this stage, the service provider shares all necessary documentation, initiates knowledge transfer and provides training to ensure a seamless ownership transition.

Once the transfer is complete, the client gains full control and ownership of the software product, enabling them to continue its operation, enhancements, and further development independently.

Overall, businesses in the tech industry can take advantage of reduced upfront investment and mitigate financial risk, which enables them to focus on their core competencies and achieve strategic objectives more efficiently.

Key benefits of the BOT model in the tech industry

The BOT model significantly reduces upfront investment and financial risk for the client through the following mechanisms:

  1. Initial investment by the service provider
    In the build phase, the service provider invests its resources in setting up the infrastructure, hiring a skilled team, and acquiring necessary software and hardware. The client is not burdened with these initial expenses, resulting in a lower upfront investment.
  2. Shared operational costs
    During the operate phase, the hired company handles the ongoing operational costs, such as employee salaries, office space rent, and equipment maintenance. The client benefits from shared operational expenses, reducing their financial risk.
  3. Risk allocation
    The BOT model allocates a significant portion of the project's risks to the third-party service company during the initial phases. This risk-sharing mechanism protects the client from bearing the full burden of potential financial losses associated with the project.
  4. Pay-as-You-Go model
    In some cases, the client pays to the service provider only for actual usage or specific outcomes achieved. This Pay-as-You-Go model ensures that the client pays only for the work utilized, further reducing upfront financial commitments.

Do you have any doubts about considering adopting the BOT model? Let’s highlight the main points. 

When is BOT suitable for you?

The BOT model can be a suitable choice for businesses under certain circumstances. Here are some factors that make the BOT model advantageous and indicate its suitability for your business:

  • Software product development
    If you want to develop a new software product but lack the resources or expertise to do so. By partnering with a specialized software development company, you can have the product built and operated by the outsourced team until it reaches a certain level of maturity.
  • Infrastructure setup and management
    Tech companies often require robust infrastructure to support their operations. In cases where you're setting up and managing the infrastructure is resource-intensive or technically challenging, the BOT model can be beneficial. The vendor can handle the initial setup and operation of the tech infrastructure until your company is ready to take over.
  • Market expansion
    When you aim to expand your presence into a new geographical region or market, the BOT model can facilitate a smooth entry. It allows you to partner with a local tech company that understands the regional market dynamics and can operate the business until your team is ready to manage it independently.
  • Accelerating projects
    The BOT model can help you accelerate project timelines. By collaborating with an external company that has expertise in the required technology, your team can speed up the development and deployment process.
  • Cost optimization
    The BOT model can be cost-effective for your company with limited funding. Especially if your company is a startup, it enables access to specialized services without making substantial upfront investments, thus optimizing your initial expenditure.
  • Risk mitigation
    For high-risk projects or ventures with uncertain outcomes, the BOT model can serve as a risk mitigation strategy. The third-party company takes on the initial risks during the development and operation phases, and you take over the project when it becomes more stable and successful.
  • Access to specialized skills
    You might choose the BOT model to access specialized skills or domain expertise that are unavailable in-house. This allows you to tap into a broader talent pool and deliver high-quality products or services.
  • Innovation and research projects
    When you want to undertake innovative research or experimental projects without diverting resources from core operations, the BOT model can be an ideal choice. The tech team can handle the research and development, and your company can transfer the knowledge and assets back later.

Of course, this is not the only outsourcing model that can bring value to a business. The BOT model is often confused with the managed services model. Each offers distinct benefits — let's compare them.

BOT model vs. Managed services

For your convenience, below you will find a table with the main points you need to know:

Ownership and control The provider has full control over the development, operation, and maintenance of the project during the build and operate phases.

Ownership is eventually transferred to the client after an agreed-upon period or under specific conditions.
The client retains ownership and control of the project or service from the outset.

The service provider manages and maintains the project according to the client's requirements and decisions.
Financial arrangements The service provider typically bears the initial financial investment for building and operating the project. The client pays for the services during the operating phase. The client pays a periodic fee* to the service provider for the ongoing management and maintenance of the project.

*The fee structure is usually based on service level agreements (SLAs) and the scope of services required

We offer several delivery models, check them out for other collaborative approaches. Our experts are always ready to consult you or provide more details about each of them. 

List of scenarios when managed services or BOT might be more suitable 

Managed services:

  • When the client wants to maintain ownership and control over the project throughout its lifecycle.
  • For projects with ongoing support and maintenance needs where a long-term partnership is preferred.
  • When the client has the required expertise and resources to oversee the project but needs additional support for its day-to-day management and operation.
  • In situations where the project scope is relatively fixed, and there is no need for eventual transfer of ownership.

BOT model:

  • When the client wants to minimize upfront investment and financial risks associated with building and operating the project.
  • For complex projects that require specialized expertise and resources during the development and operational phases.
  • When the client lacks the necessary resources or expertise to build and operate the project but intends to take over ownership after a certain period.
  • In scenarios when the client aims to benefit from the service provider's experience and efficiency in project development and operation.

To wrap up

Overall, the BOT delivery method has proven its success, with numerous confirmations of its benefits. By carefully considering project requirements, selecting the right service provider, and addressing potential challenges, tech companies can embark on a fruitful BOT engagement that drives innovation, efficiency, and long-term success.

Don't hesitate to reach out to us today for detailed information on collaboration terms and to discuss your project for the BOT model. We are here to assist you with all your inquiries and guide you through the process.


What is the Build-Operate-Transfer model?

How does the BOT model differ from the PPP and PPT models?

What are examples of BOT?

What is a BOT in tech service?

Is the BOT delivery method suitable for all types of tech projects?

How does IP ownership work in a BOT engagement?

Can the scope of a BOT engagement be modified during the project lifecycle?