Cybercrime is a growing threat in today's increasingly digital world. With increasing online transactions and storage of sensitive information, businesses and organizations must assess and mitigate cyber-attack risks.

In this article, you will learn the basics of Cybersecurity Risk Assessments and their importance in today's threat environment. You'll also discover the main points of conducting a thorough it, and the various techniques and tools used, making the assessment qualitative and profitable. This article will give you valuable insights and guidance to help you stay ahead of cyber threats in 2023.

What is a cybersecurity assessment?

A Cybersecurity Assessment is a systematic evaluation of an organization's cybersecurity, by which they can clearly understand their current security posture and the steps necessary to improve their security. This may include implementing stronger security controls, enhancing employee training programs, and updating policies and procedures to align with current best practices.

So Cybersecurity Assessment is an essential component of an organization's overall cybersecurity strategy, providing a comprehensive evaluation of its security posture and the tools and practices necessary to achieve a desired level of security that meets industry standards.

What are the different cybersecurity assessment standards?

Various industries and products have been regulated by specific standards that set the bar for their security measures. These standards are in place to protect sensitive information, whether it be personal data, health information, financial data, or even educational records.

Cybersecurity assessment standards

The following are some of the most prominent standards:

  1. GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) is an EU regulation that aims to protect the privacy of EU citizens. It requires companies processing EU citizens' personal data to obtain explicit consent, implement appropriate security measures, and report data breaches within 72 hours.
  2. HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) is a U.S. law that establishes national standards for the confidentiality, privacy, and security of personal health information. It applies to entities involved in healthcare transactions, such as providers and health plans.
  3. PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard) is a set of security standards created by major credit card companies to ensure the secure handling of credit card information by companies that accept, process, store, or transmit it.
  4. CMMC (Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification) is a framework for the cybersecurity of the U.S. defense industrial base. It requires companies to meet various cybersecurity standards depending on the type and sensitivity of the information they handle.
  5. FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) is a U.S. law that gives parents the right to inspect and review their children's education records. It also requires schools to protect the confidentiality of student records and limits the release of information without parental consent.
  6. FINRA (Financial Industry Regulatory Authority) is a self-regulatory organization in the United States that oversees and regulates the securities industry. It is responsible for enforcing federal securities laws and regulations and protecting investors by establishing rules and guidelines for the securities industry.

What are the different types of cybersecurity assessments?

The specific type of assessment required for compliance will depend on the type of information being protected and the size and complexity of the organization. And its cost can range from a few thousand dollars for simple self-assessments to hundreds of thousands for comprehensive third-party audits.

Cybersecurity Tools

However, we'll explore the types of Cybersecurity Assessments most likely required to meet each of the above-mentioned standards.

  1. Security assessment. A comprehensive examination of an organization's information security systems, policies, and procedures to ensure compliance with regulations and standards.

  2. Vulnerability assessment. Identifying and evaluating potential security weaknesses in an organization's systems, networks, or applications.

  3. Cloud security assessment. An evaluation of the security measures and controls in place for an organization's cloud computing environment.

  4. Application security program assessment. An assessment of an organization's overall program to ensure its software applications' security.

  5. Risk assessment. A systematic process of evaluating the potential impact of threats to an organization's assets and prioritizing implementing security measures.

  6. Third-party risk assessment. An assessment of the security and privacy risks associated with using a third-party vendor or service provider.

  7. Social engineering assessment. An evaluation of an organization's defenses against attempts to manipulate or deceive employees into divulging confidential information or access.

  8. Compromise assessment. An assessment determines if an organization's systems, networks, or data have been compromised by unauthorized access or activity.

  9. Incident response readiness assessment. An evaluation of an organization's ability to respond to a security incident, including its incident response plan, processes, and resources.

  10. Red teaming or red-team assessment. A comprehensive, multi-layered assessment that simulates an attack from a motivated, skilled attacker to evaluate an organization's security posture.

  11. Ransomware simulation assessment. A simulated ransomware attack evaluates an organization's preparedness for responding to and mitigating the impact of a real attack.

  12. Bug bounty. A program where an organization rewards ethical hackers for responsibly reporting security vulnerabilities in its systems and applications.

  13. CIS control assessment. An evaluation of an organization's compliance with the Center for Internet Security's Critical Security Controls framework.

  14. Table top exercises (TTX). A structured, interactive session where organizations test their incident response plan and assess their readiness to respond to a security incident.

If you think you need absolutely every one of them, but it's too long, expensive, and complicated that it's easier to leave it as it is, then find out otherwise by checking out our Enhancing the GuardRails solution case study. And more about the types of cybersecurity risk assessments you can read in this article.

What is risk assessment in cyber security?

A cybersecurity risk assessment is a systematic examination of an organization's security posture, evaluating its potential vulnerabilities and identifying the risks it faces from internal and external threats. It is critical to any company's cybersecurity strategy, allowing them to prioritize resources, allocate budgets effectively, and make informed decisions.

Please keep the difference between risk management and risk assessment in cyber security because although they have similar goals, they solve different problems. 

Risk assessment in cyber security primarily determines the system's current state, its potential vulnerabilities, and its consequences, while risk management continuously works to reduce risks and their consequences. And this is where you have to start from the beginning, paying enough attention to risk assessment; risk management works with its results.


Why perform a cyber security risk assessment?

Cybercrime is on the rise, and its impact is expanding as technology advances. A recent study by cybersecurity ventures predicts that cybercrime will cost the world over $10.5 trillion annually by 2025. It's not just the frequency of attacks that's increasing, but also the scope, affecting businesses of all sizes and industries. Despite a declining market in 2022, the need for effective cybersecurity is more critical than ever for companies looking to protect their assets and maintain their competitive edge.

Cyber Security Risk Assessment Prediction

For example, Marriott International's data breach in 2018 affected over 500 million customers, making it one of the largest data breaches in history. As a result of the breach, Marriott faced multiple lawsuits, settlements, and regulatory fines, including a $124 million settlement with the U.K. Information Commissioner's Office, the largest fine ever issued under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) at the time. The company also faced numerous class-action lawsuits from affected customers, the settlements and legal fees of which are estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars. In addition to these direct costs, Marriott also experienced a decline in its stock value due to the breach. The company's stock price fell by nearly 10% in the weeks following the announcement of the breach, wiping out billions of dollars in market value. So a large percentage of businesses have taken note and have increased their investment in cybersecurity measures.

 In fact, a report by Gartner shows that global spending on cybersecurity is projected to reach $170.4 billion in 2022, with companies of all sizes looking to safeguard against cyber threats. The risks are simply too great not to invest, and the rewards of a secure network far outweigh the costs.

Growth of Cybercrime Costs

Highlighting the importance of risk assessment in cyber security, we can point out the following problems that may arise if a risk assessment is not carried out.

  • Data breaches. If proper security measures are not in place, sensitive information could be compromised. This could lead to a loss of reputation, financial losses, and legal consequences.
  • Cyber attacks. Hackers can take advantage of vulnerabilities in your systems to steal data or cause disruption to your operations. This could result in a loss of productivity, damage to your reputation, and potential fines.
  • Compliance violations. Failing to adhere to regulations such as GDPR or HIPAA could result in hefty fines, legal action, and damage to your reputation.
  • System failures. If critical systems are not regularly tested and updated, they may become vulnerable to failures that can lead to costly downtime.
  • Malware infections. Malicious software can infect your systems, compromising data and putting your organization at risk.
  • Insufficient backups. If proper backup procedures are not in place, your organization may be unable to recover from a disaster. This could result in significant financial losses and damage to your reputation.

How to perform a cyber security risk assessment?

Looking at such an abundance of Cyber Security Assessments and Cyber Security Risk Assessments in particular, the question may arise as to how to perform them.

So first, you need to research what you will assess and how you will assess it. That's why we should start with how to conduct research in cyber security risk assessment.

All of this requires a precise, measurable, and comprehensive plan, following which you can determine the areas of research, the areas of examination, the types of examinations, and the most appropriate tools.

By the way, we have a great article on The Quality Management Plan in Project Management. In it, we also talk about the importance of having a plan at the beginning to ensure the quality of the product at each stage and also give you lots of useful tips, examples, and tools.

Let's look at the main steps of the Cyber Security Risk Assessment.

  1. Define the scope of the assessment: It is important to clearly define the systems, assets, and data that will be included in the assessment. This helps to ensure that the assessment is comprehensive and focused on the most critical assets.
  2.  Identify assets and assess their value: The next step is to identify all of the assets within the assessment's scope and determine their importance to the organization. This includes assessing the value of everything in terms of its contribution to the organization's overall operations.
  3.  Identify potential threats: The next step is to identify the potential threats that could impact the assets. This should be based on a review of current and historical threat information and analyzing the potential for new or emerging threats.
  4.  Evaluate the likelihood of risk: After the potential threats have been identified, the next step is to evaluate the likelihood of each threat occurring. This should be based on the available information and considering the current threat landscape.
  5.  Evaluate the impact of risk: The next step is to determine the impact of each identified threat on the assets and overall operations of the organization if it were to occur. This should consider the consequences of a breach and the extent of the damage that could be caused.
  6.  Prioritize risks: Based on the likelihood and impact of each identified threat, the risks should be prioritized so that the most significant risks can be addressed first.
  7.  Develop a risk mitigation plan: Once the risks have been prioritized, the next step is to develop a plan for managing and mitigating them. This should include specific actions, responsibilities, and deadlines for each risk, as well as a timeline for implementing the risk mitigation plan.
  8. Implement and monitor the risk mitigation plan: The risk mitigation plan should then be implemented and monitored to ensure that it effectively mitigates the risks. This may involve regular monitoring and updating the plan as the threat landscape changes.
  9. Regularly review and update the assessment: It is important to regularly review and update the assessment to ensure that it remains current and effective in protecting the organization against cyber threats. This should include regular assessments of the threat landscape and the effectiveness of the risk mitigation plan.

Of course, it's worth keeping in mind that these are the steps found in any cyber security risk assessment. Depending on your industry, company, and type of data storage, you may need additional steps or big changes to existing ones.

The best cyber risk assessment tools

Making a detailed plan, manually applying it, and tracking it can take enormous resources. So there are sets of ready-made solutions to largely automate and optimize this process and make it more cost-effective and high-performance. 

Of course, a lot still needs to be done manually. For example, although we successfully automate testing, many continue to use manual testing. To understand why this happens and which testing method is better, read our article on Vulnerability assessment vs. Penetration testing.

Now let's take a closer look at the best tools to help with Cyber Security Risk Assessment.

  1. NIST. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework is a set of standards and guidelines for organizations to manage and reduce cybersecurity risk. It provides a common language for organizations to describe and prioritize their security risks and develop a risk management plan. The framework is based on five core functions: Identify, Protect, Detect, Respond, and Recover.
  2. ISO/IEC 27001. The standard provides a systematic approach to managing and protecting sensitive information. It outlines a set of best practices for information security management and provides a framework for organizations to implement, monitor, and maintain their information security management system (ISMS).
  3. FAIR. The Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) framework is a risk management framework that helps organizations understand and prioritize their information risks. It provides a common language for organizations to describe and quantify their information risks and helps them make informed risk management decisions.
  4. CRISC. The Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC) certification program is designed for IT professionals responsible for managing and mitigating information security risks. The certification program provides a comprehensive understanding of the best practices for risk management. It helps individuals to develop the skills and knowledge they need to be effective in their roles.
  5. CyberArk. CyberArk Privileged Account Security Solution is a comprehensive security solution that helps organizations manage and protect their privileged accounts and sensitive information. The solution includes various tools and features, including password management, privileged session management, and vulnerability management, to help organizations secure their critical assets.
  6. Tenable Nessus. Tenable Nessus is a vulnerability assessment tool that helps organizations identify and prioritize their vulnerabilities and reduce the risk of cyber attacks. The tool provides a comprehensive assessment of an organization's security posture and helps organizations to understand their exposure to threats and develop a risk mitigation plan.
  7. Qualys Guard. Qualys Guard is a cloud-based security assessment platform that helps organizations automate their vulnerability management process. The platform provides real-time visibility into the security posture of an organization's assets. It helps organizations identify and prioritize their vulnerabilities, develop a risk mitigation plan, and monitor the effectiveness of their security measures.

Depending on your industry, company, and budget, you can find the most beneficial tool and combine some of them.


Cybersecurity risk assessments are evaluations that identify and analyze potential risks to an organization's information systems and data. They help organizations understand the likelihood and impact of cyber threats and provide recommendations for mitigation. These assessments include reviewing technical systems, processes, policies, and the human element, such as employee training and awareness. 

Performing regular cybersecurity risk assessments is crucial for organizations of all sizes and industries. They help organizations identify and mitigate potential cyber threats, improve security posture, and stay ahead of the curve regarding emerging risks. By taking proactive measures to assess and reduce cyber risk, organizations can protect their sensitive information and reputation and ensure the continued success of their business.


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